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Unpacking male fertility

There is a common misconception that infertility more often impacts women, when in reality men and women experience infertility at roughly the same rate. In instances of partnered infertility, it’s estimated that in about one third of all cases, the problem is with the male partner, in one third the problem is with the female partner, and in another one third the problem either can’t be identified or is with both partners. Male fertility can be affected by lifestyle factors, sperm disorders, medications and prior surgeries, and hormonal imbalances.

Here, we’ll break down the basics of male fertility and what to do if you and your male partner are having trouble getting pregnant.

What typically happens when sperm meets egg

A healthy male produces tiny reproductive cells called sperm, which are made in the testicles. When he ejaculates, the sperm mixes with fluid from the prostate, forming semen. During vaginal intercourse, ejaculation carries the semen into the vagina where it travels through the cervix and into the uterus and fallopian tubes. During ovulation, an egg is released from the woman’s ovary and, if fertilized by the sperm, a ball of cells (called the oocyte) is formed. Fertilization occurs in the fallopian tube and the embryo then implants inside the uterus. If the egg is not fertilized, it disintegrates and sheds during the next menstrual period.

When to see a doctor

It’s generally recommended to see a doctor for a fertility evaluation if you and your partner have been trying to conceive for at least a year with regular, unprotected sex with no success. Depending on your and your partner’s medical history, your doctor may decide to check one or both of you for a fertility workup. You may want to seek care sooner if the female partner is over 35 years old or if the male partner has certain medical conditions such as:

  • Past surgery on the groin, testicle, scrotum, or penis
  • A history of testicular or prostate problems
  • Problems with erection or ejaculation, low sex drive, or other issues with sexual function
  • Pain, lumps, or swelling in the testicular region

What to expect when seeking care

For men having trouble with infertility, a doctor may order tests to  measure the amount and quality of the sperm. This is called a sperm analysis. Your partner will provide a semen specimen at the doctor’s office and the doctor will look at the sperm under a microscope. There are 3 factors doctors look for in a sperm analysis. 

  • Sperm count: This shows the amount of sperm produced in an ejaculation. A healthy number is 20 to 150 million sperm per milliliter of semen.
  • Sperm motility: This test shows how well sperm are moving. At least 60% of sperm should have normal forward motion. Sperm that move erratically or not at all can affect the ability to conceive.
  • Sperm morphology (size and structure): Normal sperm have an oval head with a long tail. Damage to any part of the sperm can affect fertility by decreasing the ability to reach and penetrate an egg. Many conditions affecting the shape of sperm are genetic.

Remember that infertility is no one’s fault. It can be difficult and frustrating to experience any kind of fertility troubles on your journey to getting pregnant. Communicating and empathizing with your partner can help make the journey to parenthood a little easier.

Reviewed by the Ovia Health Clinical Team


“How common is infertility?” National Institutes of Health. National Institutes of Health. February 8, 2018. https://www.nichd.nih.gov/health/topics/infertility/conditioninfo/common

Mayo Clinic Staff. “Male infertility.” Mayo Clinic. Mayo Clinic. August 13, 2021. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/male-infertility/symptoms-causes/syc-20374773

“What is male infertility?” Urology Care Foundation. American Urological Association. n.d. https://www.urologyhealth.org/urology-a-z/m/male-infertility

Cedars-Sinai Staff. “Optimizing male fertility.” Cedars-Sinai. Cedars-Sinai Medical Center. May 31, 2017. https://www.cedars-sinai.org/blog/optimizing-male-fertility.html

Bradley D. Anawalt & Stephanie T. Page. “Patient education: Treatment of male infertility (beyond the basics).” UpToDate. UpToDate. November 11, 2020. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/treatment-of-male-infertility-beyond-the-basics

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